Picamilon is utilized to treat headache
HOW DOES MODAFINIL WORK?
Modafinil is known to act on both the central and peripheral nervous system. However, its precise mechanisms of action are yet to be elucidated. The active component of modafinil goes by the same name and extensive research is underway to discover how this nootropic exerts its plethora of effects (Modafinil Stack).
Multiple studies have confirmed the link between modafinil and its role in affecting various neurotransmitters in the brain. Amongst the neurotransmitters chiefly affected are the following:
Modafinil has been shown to alter the levels of histamine in the brain, especially in the hypothalamic regions. Histamine, a nitrogenous compound involved in multiple physiologic processes in the entire body, acts as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Its primary role is in increasing wakefulness and preventing the onset of sleep. (Modafinil Review)
Studies have shown that modafinil increases the local histamine concentration in the posterior hypothalamus. This effect is abolished once the neuronal levels of histamine are brought down by a powerful histamine inhibitor. Other stimulants (like methylphenidate) do not react in the same manner, thus confirming modafinil’s unique linkage with histamine.
Dopamine is a powerful neuroexcitatory transmitter associated with increased concentration, drive and memory. Research studies have confirmed the association between modafinil and increased levels of dopamine in the brain. Modafinil works on the dopamine transporters (especially the ones involved in reuptake) and occupies these sites, thereby increasing the dopamine concentration at the synaptic levels. (Modafinil Guide)
These effects of modafinil are very similar to other stimulants available in the market i.e. caffeine and amphetamines. However, modafinil is known to give a much cleaner energy boost than all the other stimulants due to its eugeroic properties.
Eugeroics are compounds that specifically improve alertness and act on specific neurotransmitters (and their receptors) in the brain. This causes modafinil to have a much smoother course of action when compared to other stimulants, as well as having lesser side effects, a better tolerance profile and a lower potential for abuse.
Thus, modafinil specifically improves an individual’s focus and concentration without causing an overall increase in the physical and mental overactivity seen with other stimulants. This ‘smart drug’ has now become popular for its off-label use as a concentration enhancer amongst business executives, students, people working on long shifts and almost anyone looking to boost their productivity. (Modafinil Review)
Orexins, also known as hypocretins, are proteinaceous substances used by neurons to communicate with one another. They are primarily involved in the maintenance of vigilance and the regulation of the sleep-arousal cycles. Narcolepsy is known to be associated with reduced levels of orexins in the central nervous system. By affecting the levels of orexins, modafinil brings about increased wakefulness and arousal states in the individual.
A core component of the sympathetic nervous system, norepinephrine functions as the stress hormone and acts on the areas of the brain that control attention, physical energy and willpower. Modafinil is known to activate these systems to promote vigilance, memory formation and focus. (Modafinil Reviews)
Glutamate, the most abundant neurotransmitter present in humans, is primarily involved in synaptic plasticity (or the ability of nerve synapses to become stronger or weaker over time). This property of glutamate makes it central to cognitive processes such as learning and memory. By activating the glutamate circuits in the brain, modafinil plays a major role in shaping the learning abilities of the individual.
GABA, or gamma amino butyric acid, is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. Modafinil reduces the levels of GABA in the neuronal circuits, thus making you less sensitive to feeling sleepy. This effect may also lead to a rise in brain histamine levels.
Amongst the most discussed of chemicals, serotonin plays a major role in regulating the mood, behavior and sleep-wake cycle of an individual. Some studies have highlighted the effect of modafinil on these systems.
Anandamide is a neurotransmitter involved in the formation of human sleep patterns and is believed to play a peripheral role in determining the properties of modafinil.As can be seen, the action of modafinil is exerted through a variety of neurotransmitters, thereby explaining the multiple benefits one can derive from this nootropic.
BENEFITS OF MODAFINIL
Originally designed for use in certain sleep disorders, modafinil performs this role excellently and improves alertness, wakefulness and brain function, especially in sleep deprived individuals.
Modafinil is an effective eugeroic that increases wakefulness in people with excessive daytime sleepiness whilst having a minimal impact on their normal nighttime sleep schedules. The drug is thus, an immense asset when treating disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea or narcolepsy.
Picamilon is a structure of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)and niacin (vitamin B3) ; the raised pressure resistance is positively because of GABA, it brings down the neuronal excitement, and goes about as a narcotic.
Niacin is known for its vasodilating property . Picamilon expands blood stream in the brain of animals, because of the niacin part of the particle.
While modafinil may increase the alertness levels of an individual, it is important to remember that it is not a long-term substitute for sleep. Users of modafinil may stay awake during their regular sleeping hours for short intervals of time without incurring a significant sleep debt.
However, to achieve the maximal benefits afforded by this drug, regular and healthy sleeping patterns are vital. Indeed, many users have experienced the best nootropic and cognitive boosts on the back of a good night’s sleep.
Increasing wakefulness is only one of modafinil’s many actions. Amongst the most common off-label uses of this drug is its usage as a nootropic to enhance cognition in both healthy and sleep deprived individuals.
Users report feeling more alert and attentive, with increased levels of energy. In addition, it may enhance mental function in individuals with attention impairment (due to age-related cognitive decline, drug abuse or attention deficit disorders).
Studies have confirmed the improvement in working, episodic and long-term memory in regular users of modafinil. Planning and executing tasks of a difficult and complex nature become much easier, thus highlighting modafinil’s role in enhancing executive function.
Many studies have been conducted to demonstrate the increase in cognition brought about by modafinil. Participants in these research studies demonstrated higher scores as compared to their peers on a variety of neuropsychological tests, such as visual pattern recognition, stop-signal reaction test and spatial planning.
Improved reaction times, learning abilities and enhanced moods are some of the other prominent effects. Further research is required to document the full range of nootropic benefits that may be accrued from this drug.
Control of Impulses
Poor impulse control may play an important role in the pathogenesis of certain disorders such as alcoholism, gambling addiction etc. By reducing the impulsivity and preventing the user from getting distracted from his/her task, modafinil may help to control such episodes of abuse and relapse.
Some exciting new studies have documented the role modafinil plays in improving brain health. By virtue of its inherent anti-oxidant properties, modafinil decreases the levels of damaging free radicals present in the central nervous system, thus conferring additional neuroprotective benefits to the user.
Use in other disorders
Modafinil has been advocated for use in childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, alongside other conventional stimulants such as amphetamine. Although research surrounding this subject is promising, modafinil has not yet been approved for use in this condition.Modafinil has also been proposed as an agent for the treatment of memory loss and fatigue associated with multiple sclerosis.
A number of clinical trials are exploring the use of modafinil in a number of other disorders, namely schizophrenia, depression, nicotine abuse, seasonal affective disorder and bipolar disorder.
With a plethora of benefits to offer, it is no wonder that modafinil is currently amongst the most popular of nootropic drugs.
HOW TO TAKE MODAFINIL
Knowing the correct dose is important to enjoy the full range of benefits of modafinil, as well as limiting the potential to develop adverse effects to the drug.Modafinil is usually sold in the form of 100 mg or 200 mg tablets. If you already are suffering from some serious medical illness, it is important to consult with a physician before embarking on the use of modafinil.
What dose should I take?
Modafinil, when used for the treatment of narcolepsy and other daytime sleep disorders, is usually taken at 100 mg or 200 mg a day. When used for sleepiness associated with a shift work disorder, doses of 200 mg are recommended, preferably one hour before the start of the shift.
Although not currently approved, modafinil for ADHD is used in the range of 100-200 mg daily. Doses for other conditions such as fatigue associated with multiple sclerosis, mood disorders and addictions need to be individualized.
When being taken for its nootropic benefits, modafinil must be used in a dose of 50 mg, with the dose being titrated over the next couple of weeks as per the requirements of its user. Some people also begin with up to 100-200 mg a day, although doses more than this range may increase the incidence of side effects substantially for beginners.
Modafinil is a lot stronger than other stimulants like caffeine and it is advisable to begin with low doses. Avoid taking modafinil for more than 3 days in a row.
When should I take it?
The wakefulness action of modafinil lasts for almost 12 hours and thus, it is prudent to take the drug early in the day (preferably upon waking up). This ensures that night time sleep patterns of the individual are unharmed by the drug.
Consider your daily schedule when planning to take modafinil. A popular schedule advocates taking modafinil 1 hour before work to maximize one’s productivity.
Are there any other precautions to follow?
It is important to ensure that you receive other essential nutrients (either through your diet or via supplements). This will keep your body healthy while it adjusts to the modafinil.
The maximum safe daily dose of modafinil, according to a number of research studies, is 400 mg. Trials comparing the impact of a larger daily dosing (such as 400 mg) have not shown any considerable benefit over the long term. The propensity for side effects is markedly raised with such large dosing schedules.
Modafinil in moderate doses is safe when taken for prolonged intervals of time. Large clinical trials have failed to demonstrate the development of tolerance to this drug when taken for several months.
Although rare, one should always consider the possibility of psychological dependence developing with the use of modafinil. Isolated case reports do describe the withdrawal symptoms seen in such long-term users, with the chief symptoms being lethargy, insomnia, anxiousness and feeling numb.
TYPES OF MODAFINIL
So, which is the right modafinil for you?
Modafinil is available in many different brand names, which can be a source of confusion for a new user. Modafinil is sold as ‘Provigil’ in the United States and the United Kingdom, while ‘Modavigil’ is the commonly available brand in Australia.
A number of pharmaceutical companies sell the generic form of modafinil online. A number of such generic forms exist, with the primary aim being to reduce prices and improve accessibility to the common man.
Amongst the most popular generic forms of modafinil you will hear of include the following:
This nootropic, sold by Sun Pharma, is a generic form of modafinil. The prohibitive high cost of the non-generic form of modafinil i.e. Provigil necessitated the development of this drug.It is usually available as a 200 mg tablet. Doses of 100 mg are considered safe for beginners and the tablet may be split in half for consumption.
This psycho-stimulant enhances mood, memory, motivation, clears brain fog and helps the user to focus for longer periods of time. Made from 12 organic ingredients, modalert carries a lesser incidence of adverse effects as compared to its non-generic form.
Modvigil, sold by Hab Pharmaceuticals, is another form of generic modafinil available in the market. It markedly enhances the cognitive performance, memory and mental energy of the user.
One key advantage of this generic form is its ability to maintain the body’s natural hormones (cortisol, melatonin) in balance, thus leaving sleep cycles unaffected. They also have a lesser propensity to cause a ‘rebound’ effect, as is seen with other stimulants.
Hence, abrupt withdrawal does not cripple the user of this drug. It is also associated with a lower risk of side effects and abuse.
Another generic form sold by Sun Pharma, Waklert is usually available in formulations of 150 mg. Due to advanced manufacturing processes, this drug bears the advantages of a purer composition, thus leading to lesser adverse effects and a more prolonged shelf life.
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